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Define natural calamities and its types with suitable examples

Natural calamities, also known as natural disasters, are catastrophic events that occur due to natural phenomena such as weather patterns, geological activity, or climate change. These events can cause significant damage to the environment and human infrastructure, as well as pose a threat to human life. The types of natural calamities include:

Floods - occur when water overflows from rivers or oceans and inundates surrounding areas. For example, in Bangladesh, annual floods cause extensive damage to homes, crops, and infrastructure (Islam et al., 2021).

Cyclones - are strong winds that can cause significant damage to coastal regions. In 2020, Bangladesh was hit by a devastating cyclone that caused widespread destruction (World Vision International, 2020).

Earthquakes - occur when the earth's tectonic plates shift, causing the ground to shake. For example, in 2015, a major earthquake in Nepal caused extensive damage and loss of life.

Landslides - occur when rocks and soil slide downhill due to factors such as heavy rainfall or earthquakes. In 2017, landslides caused by heavy rainfall in Bangladesh led to significant loss of life and displacement (The Daily Star, 2017).

Other types of natural calamities can include volcanic eruptions, wildfires, and droughts. These events can have severe consequences on communities and can cause long-term economic and social disruption. It is important for governments and communities to plan and prepare for these events to minimize their impact and protect vulnerable populations.


Islam, M. S., Uddin, K., & Hossain, M. A. (2021). Flood hazard and its impact on livelihood of the people of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 65, 102487.

The Daily Star. (2017). Death toll from landslides reaches 163. Retrieved from

World Vision International. (2020). Cyclone Amphan response. Retrieved from